In layman's terms, it means that certain things remind us of other things. Whether we like the certain thing is dependent upon whether we like the thing it reminds us of. More importantly, this varies from person to person and tribe to tribe.
After defining your software brand's personality, look, and feel, you can begin the hunt.
The hunt? Yes! The hunt.
The hunt for things that resemble those traits. They can be anywhere, you just have to find them. If possible, your ideal user will already have quite a few that you can reference. They're found in the things they eat, the clothes they wear, the gadgets they use, the movies they watch, the people they admire, and the beliefs they adhere to.
If you can find these things, apply their look, their language, and their attitude, then you are using semiotics to your advantage.
Creative minds, though responsible for new ideas and solving big problems, have a huge shadow: the inability to give those new ideas time. This is especially true in branding. It's almost inevitable that after going through a new brand identity, strategy, etc, the desire to change will pop up. A new idea will strike and it must manifest or it will go away.
But int he context of branding, assuming you do a good job, you have to resist. Branding is something that should remain consistent and be given its due before making massive overhauls.
Commons areas where this desire arises:
Look, these things might need to change, but if you have to let them settle before you can make an informed decision as to whether or not they need to change. This doesn't mean you can't change small things, like experimenting with new ads, altering your layouts, running A/B tests, but it should all cohere to the strategy you are trying to implement.
Point being: resist your creative impulses to start something new before your previous task has been finished and given time to rest.
In 1999, Kellogg's was seeing a shift toward healthy breakfast options. This meant that their top sellers like Frosted Flakes, Rice Krispies, Pops, and Froot Loops (all of which are loaded with mass amounts of sugar) were becoming less and less desirable from consumers.
Now, Kellogg's could try and reposition their brand, which is known for these fun cereals. But it would take a long time, a lot of change, and hope that their fan base would still appreciate them. Or they could go a different route... like acquiring a La Jolla based company called Kashi that is already known for healthy breakfast cereals. They maintain their position and get to pump Kashi full of Kellogg's resources to gain more market share.
The point? Customers might need it, but you have to wonder whether or not they will buy it from you. Are you in a position to offer them a new solution? Will this new offering dilute your brand?
If you can't do it effectively, make a new brand.